Associations with multiple male groups increase the energy expenditure of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) female and calf pairs on the breeding grounds

In mammalian mating systems, where operational sex ratios are male skewed and males must compete for access to females, increased levels of male attention may amount to harassment of females and their offspring. To evaluate how male associations affect the behaviour of humpback whale (Megaptera nova...

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Bibliographic details
Main Author: Cartwright, Rachel
Sullivan, Matthew
Format: Journal Article
Language: English
Place of publication: Brill Academic Publishers 2009
Data of publication: 2009
Bibliography: 10.1163/156853909X458377
Online Access: available in Bonn?
Database: Manchester Metropolitan University Institutional Repository
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